Lorena E. Tidwell
Research Methods – SP’10

Assumptions, Limitations & Delimitations

The study is being conducted to identify specific pitching techniques that may contribute to Ulnar Collateral Ligament (UCL) injury. In addition, I would like to find a correlation between associated risk factors and conditions that may lead to UCL pathology.

1. Subjects must be school-age adolescents, preferably between the ages of 12 – 18.
2. Subjects must participate in year-round baseball.
3. Subjects must be pitchers who consistently throw curve balls and side arm pitches.
4. Subjects must have been experiencing symptoms for at least one month.
1. Study may limit equal representation of all sports that use repetitive overhead motions.
2. Study may not assess level of puberty and maturity of bone structures, to identify true factors that can contribute to UCL injuries.
3. Study may not assess degree of pain due to differences in pain tolerance.
1. Subjects are aware of differences between a fastball, curveball, and side arm pitch.
2. Subjects understand that year-round baseball includes training, practices and/or games in every month of the year.
3. Testing procedures and equipment is valid and reliable.

Tracee Byrd - REPOST
This study was designed to determine if a correlation exists between the float serve and suprascapular neuropathy in volleyball players. The following delimitations were noted in this study.
1. Participants were from one elite level team of females.
2. Participants had no prior shoulder surgeries or known neurological impairments to the shoulder.

The following limitations were noted in this study.
1. Participants from one team may not represent participants from all teams.
2. The participants’ gender may limit the results.
3. All participants may not use exact same serving form.
4. Participants may have different levels of experience.

The following assumptions were noted in this study.
1. The participants understood directions.
2. The participants were truthful about experience level and previous injuries.
3. The measuring equipment was accurate.

Miguel A. De La Fuente

This study was done in order to compare the benefits of CrossFit training methods vs. ACSm guidelines/standards of physical Activity and these are the Limitations, Declimitations, Assumptions:
1. The small number of chosen participants will not properly represent the large population of the region where the study is being conducted.
2. The poor nutritional value in this region and for this participants will more than likely interfere with the study.

1. Chosen participants have very little experience with exercise or they have never been physical active.
2. Participants are overweight and have limited range of motion (ROM) due to their overweight or obesity.
3. CrossFit is a different training program which is fairly new and can be uncomfortable to individuals who are not used to intense physical activity.

1. Chosen participants were honest about their experience with physical activity.
2. Chosen participants were honest about their experience with high intensity training.
3. Chosen participants kept daily nutritional logs.

Gina Blackwell
This study was designed to identify the effects of cross-transfer proprioceptive training of the lower extremities. The following are lists of the studies Assumptions, Delimitations and Limitations

1. All participants have given truthful history of injuries.
2. Participants understand the directions.
3. The participants are compliant to the protocol.

1.The protocol will take place over a six week period.
2. Twenty participants with no resent history of injury to the lower extremities.
3. Bilaterally equal strength and flexibility.
1.Unexpected injuries to the participants outside of the study.
2. Previous Proprioceptive training.

Joel Weiss
The study is designed to analysis the most effective training methods for loosing body fat and toning muscle. The following are some of the delimitations in the study.
1. The participants in the study all have an elevated level of body fat.
2. The participants do not exercise frequently nor do they eat particularly healthy.
3. The method of research used in the study was observation.

The limitations of the study are the following:
1. The population of the study is small and is not representative of a cross section of America.
2. The study only concentrated on obese individuals who often loose body fat more quickly than fit individuals.
3. The diet of each individual in the study differs and this may skew the observed results.

The assumptions of the study are the following.
1. The participants made an honest effort to train to the best of their ability.
2. The participants tried to lower their daily calorie intake to a reasonable level.
3. The trainers and techniques used to lower body fat are effective.
4. The data is accurate and measures what it is intended to measure.

Alana Lara
This study was designed to analysis the benefits a sports psychologist has on an athletes performance. The following are delimitations noted in this study:
1. The participants were all athletes that are seeking help.
2. Only surveys and interviews were used to measure the benefits gained from seeing a sports psychologists.
3. The participants are all division one athletes.
4. Athletes that seek help from a sports psychologist are being analyzed.

The following limitations were noted in this study:
1. Other outside factors could play a role in improvement of athletic performance.
2. Generalizabilty, this study is conducted only on sport teams in the United States.
3. A small number of athletes were used for the study.
4. Different sports psychologists are being used to assists athletes and therefore might have different impacts on performance.

The following assumptions were noted in this study:
1. The participants responded to the questions truthfully.
3. There are no serious issues that are affecting the athlete.
4. The athlete is not seeing another counselor or obtaining help in other capacities. (Help from Parents, friends, trainers, coaches)
5. The sports psychologists are experienced.
6. The sports psychologists are all familiar with the same methods to assist the athlete.

Paul Garza
This study was completed in order to bring attention to the behavior of young athletes with parents who are forcing them to participate in sports.
1.Study of organized youth sporting events are needed.
2.The study is done in different regions.
3.The study is done on popular youth sports.
4.The athletes age range from 3 years to 19 and routinely participate in sports.

The following limitations were noted in this study.
1.The outcome of the study may vary depending on the demographics.
2.The data collected can only be from parents who force their child to participate in sports.

These statements were assumed from the study.
1.The child had no psychological problems before joining a sport.
2.The parent’s goals for their children are like minded and aimed for great success.
3.The child is constantly participating in sports because of parent involvement.
4.The child has no physical disabilities.

Brenda Lozano
This study is conducted to determine the method of training that is needed for a sprinter to reach their optimal speed that is being targeted.

The following are limitation to the study:
1. Genetics may help or hinder the validity of the study by having an advantage.
2. The age and gender can cause a limit in the study.
3. The participant's intensity may change during testing.

1. The participants that are involved in the study need to have sprint mechanics.
2. Athletes need to be health without injury.

1. All the participants were very cooperative in the test.
2. The participants were physically and mentally capable of testing.

*Tisha Hooper*

This study is strictly an informative guide for healthcare professionals about the dangers & prevention methods for concussions.
1) There are no participants to actually study. This paper is strictly informative for the allied health professional.
2) Access to full text articles about concussions (most websites require article purchasing).

1) The information provided is from a variety of different researchers.
1) All the concussion guidelines are accurate measurements (as to the extent of a concussion).
2) The health care professional has a thorough background on concussion management.

Limitation, Delimitations, Assumptions
This study was designed to determine the correct method in preventing athletic injuries in athletes. The information gained will provide coaches, athletes, and athletic trainers, with proper background on how to stay healthy.
1) The participant age and gender may limit the results of the study.
2) Some of the different types of training methods explored may have a different affect on different sports.
1) They participants were all healthy athletes with no previous injuries.
2) The study was performed over 6 month time period.
3) The participants were both male and female and ranged in ages from 15-19 years old.
1) The participants were physically prepared for the study.
2) The participant’s best work was done at all times.
3) The participants understood instructions.
Kendi McGuire

Alejandro Gonzalez
1. Difficult to get subjects under the influence of steroids for study
2.Difficult to analyze what is going on in the muscles while hormone
1. The amount of steroids taken verses the effects.
2. Subjects difficult to find to study
1. Steroids have detrimental effects on athletes
2.New substance can be found to replace steroids that is nontoxic

Henrique Martins
The following were limitation noted in this study:
1. The test measurement from the Borg Scale is subjective, each runner have their own interpretations regards to the scale.
2. The researcher does not have the control of the runner’s work out during the week.
3. The number of participants may not be representing the characteristics from the population.
4. Male and Females have different interpretation (feeling) from the perceived exertion.
The following were delimitations noted in this study:
1. All runners must be recreational runner with at least 5 miles run of experience
2. All runners must be training run at least 3 times a week
3. The participants need to be between age 25 and 45.
The following were assumptions noted in this study:
1. The participants understood the Borg Scale.
2. All runners understand the directions.
3. All participants have experienced on Cardiopulmonary Stress Test before.
4. All participants have a previous health medical authorization to make physical activities.

This study was designed to prove that there is a correlation between children who are within the Healthy Fitness Zone (HFZ) of the Fitnessgram and children who perform well on standardized tests such as the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS).

  1. The following are limitations noted in the study.
  2. The small number of students may not be representative of a statewide or nationwide study.
  3. There are a number of students who move into and out of the school setting during the study time frame.
  1. The following are the delimitations noted in the study.
  2. The Fitnessgram results for the students are assessable and all identifying markers can be removed.
  3. The Fitnessgram results are from the 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10 school years.
  4. The Fitnessgram was administered by the same teachers.
  5. The TAKS results can be assess within the confines of the campus office.
  6. All students were new to the campus during the first year of the Fitnessgram.
  1. The following are the assumptions noted in the study.
  2. The students have eaten a good breakfast and are well rested on testing days.
  3. The students do their best work on both the TAKS and Fitnessgram tests.
  4. The weather conditions during Fitnessgram testing were optimum.
  5. Testers were well rested and consistent in testing methods.
  6. Testing equipment and supplies in working order (timers). - Erin

Henry Schwerdtfeger
I bet I add to these as the study comes together.
This study is designed to test the effectiveness a lower body weight training program and +Gz tolerance in active duty Naval Aviators.. The following are delimitations imposed for this study:
1. The participant are Designated Naval Aviators, and experienced in the aviation environment.
2. The study consists of Naval Aviators reporting for Centrifuge Flight Environment Training CFET over a three-month period.
3. Physiological measurements of the thigh girth and BMI will be conducted by the Aerospace Physiologist using designated parameters.
4. The participant are not suffering from any prior medical conditions or other limitations to +Gz tolerance (established during flight physical and medical clearance to fly).

The following limitations were noted in this study based on the participant:

1. The number of participant may be small and not fully represent the larger population.
2. The results are limited to experienced Naval Aviators.

The following assumptions were noted in this study:

  1. The participants are giving their best effort, are not ill or fatigued during the training.
  2. The participants all understand the instructions provided to them during the lecture.
  3. The participants all receive the same level of coaching
  4. The participants Anti G suit and equipment are fitted appropriately and are operating correctly
VR, Henry

(Shannah Clabaugh)
The following limitations to the investigation are noted:
1. Only those athletes and parents that return the parental permission forms will participate in the study. This may adversely affect the composition of the population.
2. The research is limited by the observation of the researchers and response of participants during questionnaires and interviews.
3. The knowledge, skills, and abilities of the researcher are limited.
4. Specific wording of the instruments could result in response bias.
1. Research will only focus on parents and children of a certain age range.
1. The participants rate and answer the questions truthfully.
2. The participants understood the directions.
3. Individual responses may be affected by emotional reactions to the instrument.
4. The researcher knows what s/he is doing (haha! Just thought I’d throw a
:-) in here!).

This study was designed to observe basketball coaches’ leadership effect between basketball players and teams in KBL during practice and competition. The following delimitations were imposed upon this study:
1. The study spanned during one season in KBL (Korea Basketball League).
2. The participants must be basketball players and coaches in KBL
3. Coaches’ leadership was to be important factor to effect change between KBL basketball players and coaches.
4. Investigation of coaches’ leadership is made in basketball players and coaches during one competition season in KBL
5. This study will be applied in foreign players.

The following limitations were noted in this study:
1. The number of the participants may not represent the population in KBL
2. The results of participants limit to foreign players.

The following assumptions were also noted in this study:
1. The players and coaches understood the directions.
2. The players and coaches responded to question for accurate results.
3. Investigation devices are accurate.
4. The players and coaches understood coaches’ leadership effect.

This study will be designed to measure an increase in maximal oxygen uptake and peak flow in adolescent

Limitations for the study are as follows:
1. Each participant will need an intensive screening by a physician to determine their eligibility for the study.
2. Not all ethnic groups will represented when reporting results.
3. The great range of Adolescent age will pose difficulty when gathering samples from all ages.
4. Oxygen uptake will not be measured using the “fick equation” or the “cooper test.”
5. The exercise program will require decent weather for each session.
6. The exercise program will predominantly consist of long distance running.

Delimitations for the study are as follows:

1. Participants in the study will have to be athletes that compete in Cross-country, track & field, basketball, or soccer.
2. The age range for the participants will be from 12 to 18 years old.
3. Each session of the 6-week program will be conducted on a site being supervised by the researcher and a nurse.

4. A peak flow meter test will be conducted on all participants to measure an increase of peak flow during different points of the program.
5. The “Pedersen estimation” will be used to assess an increase in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) on all participants during different points of the program.

Assumptions for the study are as follows:

1. Participants will stay motivated throughout the study.

2. Participants will adhere to the program designed for the study exactly as described in the study.
3. The exercise program will not be altered by absenteeism or natural occurring events (weather etc.).
4. A peak flow meter test will be a successful method of measuring increases in peak flow and will correlate to increases in fitness levels.
5. An assessment using the “Pedersen estimation” will unveil increases in maximal oxygen uptake due to the nature of the program.
-----ELIAS BLANCO-----

Mary Swartwood

This study was designed to observe adolescent boys and girls time spent in physical activity and sedentary while measuring their posture and weight. The following delimitations were imposed on the study.
1.The participants are adolescents between the ages of 4-9

  1. The study spanned over two weeks
  2. The participants are of low income status
  3. Measuring of posture is done sitting with digital camera
  4. Measurement of weight is done by automated scale
  5. Time spent in either area is timed by stop watch

The following limitations were noted in the study:

1. The participants may not represent a larger populations
2. Method of posture measurement may be open to interpretation


The following assumptions are noted in this study:

  1. The participants are not affected by our observations
  2. Measurements are taken without bias and accurately
  3. Measuring devices are accurate
  4. The parents of the participants give consent to observations